Words and Phrases|
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Words and Phrases
|Words or Phrase||Description|
||A copy of all the previous years' entries in the parish register
which was passed to the Archdeacon. This copy runs annually from Easter to Easter.
||Marriages can take place if a licence has been issued by the local
Bishop or after banns have been read. Banns are notices which
are read out in church for three Sundays before a marriage. They
are read in the home parish of the bride and groom and call on
anyone who knows of good reason why the marriage should not
take place, to declare it. If no objection is raised then the
marriage can proceed.
||Similar to Archdeacon's Transcripts except that they are copies
made for the Bishop.
|Burial in Wool Acts
||Two Acts of Parliament in 1667 and 1678, required that the dead
had to be buried in a 'shirt, shift, sheet or shroud' made of wool.
This was an early example of the state trying to protect its
industry. A person had to swear an affidavit that the burial had
taken place according to the law and fines were levied on anyone
connected with an illegal burial. The Act was widely ignored
after the 1680's, but remained in force until 1814.
||See under 'Hide'
||A census was first recorded in England and Wales in 1801. Early
returns were just concerned with numbers and not names, so
only a few of them survive which record households. The census
is taken every 10 years, and from 1841 personal information was
recorded. The 1841 census does not record exact ages for adults,
or exact birthplaces. The 1851 census does contain this
information and so is of far greater use. GRO indices|
||By 1662, King Charles II was in debt. Parliament authorized the
collection of a new tax, the receipts from which were paid
directly to the crown. This was really unpopular, not only with
the opposition in Parliament, but with the population generally.
The tax was collected at the rate of 1 shilling for each hearth in a
property. This was payable twice a year, at Michaelmas (25
Sept) and Lady Day (25 Mar). There were exemptions for the
poor. Hearth Tax Returns for Norfolk have been transcribed for
Michaelmas 1664 and Lady Day 1666. It is useful for historians
to have such a wide-ranging survey of households, even if a
good deal of tax evasion occurred by under-declaring the
number of hearths in a house.
|| The amount of land required to support a Freeman and his extended
family and which could be ploughed by a team of oxen in one year. This
varied quite a lot according to whether the land was good or poor,
hilly or flat, but was very roughly 160 acres. In Norfolk, the area
was more often known as a Carucate.
|| From the 10th century onwards, shires were divided into smaller areas
for administration. These units were known as Hundreds. The name
possibly originated from an area of one hundred Hides or Carucates. A
Reeve was appointed to run a Hundred on behalf of the Sheriff (Shire
Reeve) and he exerted his authority through a Hundred Court.
Hundreds declined in importance with the forming of Poor Law Unions
and Registration Districts and became effectively redundant with the
Local Government Act of 1894 which created District Councils.
||Until 1972, British Money was based on the following:
12 Pence = 1 Shilling
20 Shillings = 1 Pound
Early Subsidies and assessments also frequently refer to a Mark.
A Mark was the equivalent of two thirds of a Pound so making
it worth 13 Shillings and 4 Pence. On this Archive website, the
abbreviations Pd (Pound), S (Shilling) d (Pence) and Mk (Mark)
||In days before the introduction of professional armies; Kings and
Lords still liked to engage themselves in warfare. To raise an
army, a muster would be called. All able bodied men between 16
and 60 were required to attend and persons selected from them
to go to war.
||An order of 1538 required each parish to record baptisms,
marriages and burials and to store them in a secure coffer. (The
Parish Chest). These records were made weekly on loose sheets
of paper or parchment. In 1598 the instruction was amended so
that all the loose sheets had to be copied into a bound parchment
register. Particular attention had to be paid to all those entries
recorded since the accession of Elizabeth I. Copies were made
annually and sent to the Archdeacon or Bishop. At first, all the
entries tended to be recorded en masse. Separate sections of the
register were often later used to record different events. This has
ultimately led to separate registers of Baptism, Marriage, Burial
||A Tax return. People were assessed as to their general wealth.
It was basically split into two sections, Income calculated
on their land holdings and the capital value of their Goods. They
were liable to pay tax on whichever produced most income for
the Crown. Tax on land was at the rate of 4 shillings in the
Pound, land holdings under 20 shillings did not count. Goods
(also referred to as Goods and Cattle) were taxed at 2 shillings
8 pence in the pound and tax was payable on Goods worth 3
Pounds or more. There was widespread tax evasion by trying
to get the value of land or goods under-declared.
||An assessment made of the wealth of individuals which led to
them being taxed (see also under 'subsidy')
© Copyright 2001-2017, Andrew Rivett, Geoff Lowe